Monday, 20 October 2014

WHAT CAUSES TUBERCULOSIS

 e Medicine Health
  Once infectious particles reach the alveoli (small saclike structures in the air spaces in the lungs), another cell, called the macrophage, engulfs the TB bacteria.
        Then the bacteria are transmitted to the lymphatic system and bloodstream and spread to other organs occurs.
        The bacteria further multiply in organs that have high oxygen pressures, such as the upper lobes of the lungs, the kidneys, bone marrow, and meninges -- the membrane-like coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
    When the bacteria cause clinically detectable disease, you have TB.
    People who have inhaled the TB bacteria, but in whom the disease is controlled, are referred to as infected. Their immune system has walled off the organism in an inflammatory focus known as a granuloma. They have no symptoms, frequently have a positive skin test for TB, yet cannot transmit the disease to others. This is referred to as latent tuberculosis infection or LTBI.
    Risk factors for TB include the following:
        HIV infection,
        low socioeconomic status,
        alcoholism,
        homelessness,
        crowded living conditions,
        diseases that weaken the immune system,
        migration from a country with a high number of cases,
        and health-care workers.

Wednesday, 15 October 2014

WHAT ARE HEMORRHOIDS

 Hemorrhoids.net

What Are Hemorrhoids?
The term hemorrhoids refers to a condition in which the veins around the anus or lower rectum are swollen and inflamed. Hemorrhoids may result from straining to move stool. Other contributing factors include pregnancy, aging, chronic constipation or diarrhea, and anal intercourse. Hemorrhoids are both inside and above the anus (internal) or under the skin around the anus (external). Hemorrhoids (piles) arise from congestion of internal and/or external venous plexuses around the anal canal.
How Common Are Hemorrhoids?
Hemorrhoids are very common in both men and women. About half of the population have hemorrhoids by age 50. Hemorrhoids are also common among pregnant women. The pressure of the fetus in the abdomen, as well as hormonal changes, cause the hemorrhoidal vessels to enlarge. These vessels are also placed under severe pressure during childbirth. For most women, however, hemorrhoids caused by pregnancy are a temporary problem.

How Are Hemorrhoids Diagnosed?
A thorough evaluation and proper diagnosis by the doctor is important any time bleeding from the rectum or blood in the stool occurs. Bleeding may also be a symptom of other digestive diseases, including colorectal cancer. The doctor will examine the anus and rectum to look for swollen blood vessels that indicate hemorrhoids and will also perform a digital rectal exam with a gloved, lubricated finger to feel for abnormalities. Closer evaluation of the rectum for hemorrhoids requires an exam with an anoscope, a hollow, lighted tube useful for viewing internal hemorrhoids, or a proctoscope, useful for more completely examining the entire rectum. To rule out other causes of gastrointestinal bleeding, the doctor may examine the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid) with sigmoidoscopy or the entire colon with colonoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are diagnostic procedures that also involve the use of lighted, flexible tubes inserted through the rectum. 

Sunday, 12 October 2014

DRINKING COFFEE: HARM OR BENEFIT. DON'T GET ADDICTED WITHOUT READING THIS ARTICLE

Health Goes Upi
Coffee is very popular all over the world. It tastes good, helps you to wake up and stimulates your mind. Nevertheless, many people are trying to give up drinking coffee, or are trying to drink decaf coffee, because they are anxious about their health. Many doctors affirm that coffee can be injurious for health, when the other doctors are sure that coffee can benefit health and prevent many diseases. So, who is right?

Of course, drinking coffee can cause harm to you health, but it can also become a tasty treatment of some illnesses. Trying to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of drinking coffee, we’ll start with benefits.

1.First of all, regular coffee-drinkers (2-3 cups per day) can be safe from the cancer of the throat or oral cavity.
2.Your regular cup of coffee can increase your intellectual activity, when you are bored or tired.
3. High antioxidant activity makes coffee an excellent ally against Parkinson’s disease.
4. Coffee can protect against asthma due to theophylline.
5. Antioxidants and magnesium in coffee prevents type 2 diabetes.
6.Coffee helps to counter migraines and is an avowed anti-depressant.
7. Coffee reduces the risk of cirrhosis of the liver.
8.Smokers should not avoid coffee, since it can help against bladder cancer, thanks to its diuretic effect.
9.Coffee protects your heart, and you may not afraid of cardiovascular diseases.
10. Due to content of tannin, coffee protects your teeth against caries.
11. Blepharospasm is one more disease you can avoid drinking coffee.
But drinking coffee, a person should always keep within limits. Two – three cups a day it’s norm, more than five – excess, which can lead to upsetting consequences.

Too much coffee can:

1. cause irritability and anxiety. This condition is, for sure, well-known to all the coffee-fans. Excessive coffee consumption leads to insomnia or to narcolepsy.
2. Coffee can protect against cancer, but it also contains a lot of acknowledged carcinogens: caffeine, creosote, tars, pymdine etc.
3. Drinking too much coffee raises cortisol level, which in turn causes higher blood pressure and harder heart pumping.
4. Coffee can affect pregnancy. It may lead to low birth weight, miscarriages, inability to conceive, birth defects, premature birth, and sluggish sperm.
5. Persons with glaucoma should avoid coffee, since it may increase intraocular pressure.
6. Caffeine leaches calcium from the bones and may aggravate osteoporosis.
7. Chemicals in coffee can irritate the stomach lining.
8. Iron deficiency anemia is the problem of coffee-drinkers.
9. Coffee contains a lot of vitamin K, which can affect coagulability of the blood.
Comparing all the risks and benefits we can notice, that drinking coffee is a benefit, but the excess of coffee is harm. Never the less, there are some categories of people, who should never drink coffee. It is strictly prohibited to nursing or pregnant women, persons with high blood pressure, heart diseases, high cholesterol and people with mental illnesses, anxiety or insomnia. Mind your health and keep within limits, and coffee will became your best friend!

Thursday, 9 October 2014

DWARFS vs MIDGETS

MIDGETS

DWARFS
By Diffen
The term midget is different from dwarf based on body proportions. A person with dwarfism has disproportionately short limbs. The term midget was used to describe persons of small size but with normal proportions when compared to average people.
The word dwarf is not considered offensive.     The word "midget" is considered offensive for either description. It is considered most offensive when misused to describe those with dwarfism. The term "homunculus" may be less offensive.

Differences in associated problems
While there are many problems associated with Dwarfism, midgets are not plagued by these problems. Midgets are just normal people whose height is stunted. In the case of dwarfs, the physical conditions affecting them are: malformed bones, nerve compression, joint disease, and disoriented growth of some organs.

Both midgets and dwarfs have to suffer the psychological or social problems associated with their condition. Social prejudice against their extreme height may reduce their social confidence and opportunities. Sometimes they're mocked and may suffer from low self esteem. Sometimes extreme shortness (height of less than 3 feet) may interfere with their day to day chores.

Sunday, 5 October 2014

WHY DOES DOG'S PENIS GET STUCK WHILE MATING


Pets Beta:

The males penis will swell inside the females vagina during the mating. This will cause them to get stuck. It is completely normal for dogs to get stuck together after mating and you should not attempt to divide them. If you don't want them to mate you should have had enough time to try separating them before.

The time it takes for the swelling to reduce and allow separation differs, one article on the breeding tie suggests a time between 2 and 30 minutes.

 Getting stuck together is normal. Do NOT ice them to get them apart.

 It is advised that you give close supervision and keep them calm. You do not want the female to panic and start squirming. If she is larger than the male she can really hurt the male. He is helpless and will usually stand perfectly still, waiting.     After a tie […] check your male, and make sure that his penis has gone back inside of him and is not strangled in hair or stuck out.


Saturday, 4 October 2014

CAN BREAST IMPLANTS MAKE IT HARDER TO FIND BREAST CANCER DURING MAMMOGRAPHY?

Answers from Sandhya Pruthi, M.D.
 
Yes. Breast implants, either saline or silicone, can obscure mammogram images, decreasing the ability of mammograms to reveal breast cancer. Still, studies show that mammograms are an effective way to screen for breast cancer in women with breast implants.
If you have breast implants, you can take steps to make your mammogram more successful, such as:
  • Find a facility that sees many women with breast implants. Ask your doctor for a referral to a clinic where radiologists have experience performing and reading mammograms of women with breast implants.
    Ask about the clinic staff's experience when you make your appointment. You'll want to know that the clinic obtains special mammogram views in addition to the standard mammogram images to better evaluate the breast tissue.
  • Speak up about your breast implants at your appointment. When you make your appointment and again when you arrive at your appointment, tell the staff that you have breast implants.
  • If you have noted changes in your breast or if you have concerns, tell your doctor promptly. Your doctor will talk with the radiologist to decide whether you need additional imaging.
There's a slight risk that your breast implants may rupture during a mammogram. But the benefits of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer outweigh this risk.

Thursday, 2 October 2014

ONE IN FIVE MEN COULD SUFFER FROM FERTILITY. PROBLEMS. AND SCIENTISTS HAVE WARNED THAT IT'S JUST GOING TO GET WORSE.

The infertility timebomb: Are men facing rapid extinction?



There's a crisis brewing, but it has nothing to do with the economic deficit or the current political uncertainty. Scientists are warning that rising levels of male infertility have become so perilous that it is a serious 'public health issue'. And some go even further.
Professor Niels Skakkebaek, of the University of Copenhagen, describes the issue 'as important as global warming'. Last week, one science writer even suggested, in starkly terrifying terms, that if scientists from Mars were to study the male reproductive system, they would possibly conclude that man was destined for rapid extinction.
And if it continues, this trend could indicate men are on a path to becoming completely infertile within a few generations.
L'enfant by Spencer Rowell
Scientists are warning that rising levels of male infertility have become so perilous that it is a serious 'public health issue'
Reports claim that as many as one in five healthy young men between the ages of 18 and 25 produce abnormal sperm counts.
Only 5 to 15 per cent of their sperm is good enough to be classed as 'normal' under World Health organisation rules  -  proving that infertility is not just a female problem. Indeed, among those experiencing difficulty with conception, a male fertility problem is considered important in about 40 per cent of couples.
But women trying to get pregnant are facing another astonishing claim: that the core problems of male fertility  -  while they may be exacerbated by environmental issues  -  start in the womb.
'Sperm counts are declining and there is mounting evidence that the problem starts even before birth,' says Dr Gillian Lockwood, medical director of Midland Fertility Services.
She cites growing evidence that although the process of sperm production  -  known as spermatogenesis  -  starts in adolescence, the crucial preparations are made in the few months before and after birth.