Wednesday, 25 November 2015


Family Dental P.c.

Your tooth is cracked, or your tooth is chipped. What do you think of when you read these phrases?  Your first thought may be “Ouch!” but think a little more.  What do you think can cause a chip or crack?  Some of the answers may surprise you.  For example, did you know that teeth, like glass, can crack as a result of extreme temperature changes?  The American Dental Association (ADA) notes that “exposure of tooth enamel to temperature extremes, such as eating hot food and then drinking ice water,” can cause a crack.  There are several other possible causes and, in some cases, you may not even know a tooth is cracked.

Are you prone to chewing on things like pens, pencils, toothpicks, a necklace, or other items?  Maybe you do this because you are tense or anxious, or use it as a way to help you quit smoking.  Perhaps it’s a habit and you don’t even realize you are doing it.  Regardless of the reason for the chewing, it may have an unintended consequence: a chipped tooth.  The ADA advises against chewing on hard objects and suggests chewing sugarless gum, instead.

Many people assume that all foods are safe to chew.  However, that may not necessarily be the case.  Certain items, such as ice cubes, hard candy, or pretzels, can also lead to cracks or chips in the teeth.  Although you may enjoy chewing ice cubes or find it irresistible to chew hard candy, resist the temptation.  You will reduce the chances that you might unwittingly chip or crack your tooth.

Getting married?  If so, you may find that you are suddenly giving a lot of thought to your smile.  This is understandable given that you and your spouse-to-be will be the center of a great deal of attention on your wedding day.  In addition, you will appear in numerous photographs and you want your smile to reflect your best self.  Many brides and grooms plan a visit to the dentist prior to the wedding to get their teeth cleaned and many consider teeth whitening at this time.  If you have a chip or crack, this can be an excellent time to address it so that your smile will be at its best for the pictures.  The ADA notes that bonding, “a cosmetic procedure that uses tooth-colored materials that are attached or bonded to the tooth surface,” can be a solution for dealing with chips or cracks.

Do hot or cold foods cause you discomfort? You may assume it is one of those things that happen to everybody, but there are several things that could cause it.  A cracked tooth may be the culprit; there are other possible causes, including tooth decay, worn tooth enamel, and worn fillings.  If you are experiencing sensitivity to heat or cold, it is important to tell the dentist about it.  The dentist can do an exam, determine the cause of the problem, and offer you treatment.

If you suspect that your tooth is cracked or chipped, talk with your dentist immediately.  In addition to minimizing pain and further damage, you will be ensuring your continued oral health.  Moore Family Dental provides professional services in a comfortable environment to correct any dental issues.

Friday, 13 November 2015


A pacemaker is a small device that's placed in the chest or abdomen to help control abnormal heart rhythms. This device uses low-energy electrical pulses to prompt the heart to beat at a normal rate. Pacemakers are used to treat arrhythmias. Arrhythmias are problems with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat.

Monday, 9 November 2015



Vaccines to Prevent Typhoid Fever

 Inactivated Typhoid Vaccine: Typhoid vaccine given as a shot
 Live Typhoid Vaccine: Typhoid vaccine taken orally (by mouth)    Typhoid  fever) is a serious disease. If it is not treated, it can kill up to 30 percent of people who get it.

Some people who get typhoid become “carriers,” who can spread the disease to others. Typhoid vaccine can prevent typhoid.

There are two vaccines to prevent typhoid. One is an inactivated (killed) vaccine gotten as a shot, and the other is live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine, which is taken orally (by mouth).

Typhoid vaccine is recommended for:    Travelers to parts of the world where typhoid is common (NOTE: typhoid vaccine is not 100 percent effective and is not a substitute for being careful about what you eat or drink. People in close contact with a typhoid carrier and
laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria.

Inactivated Typhoid Vaccine (Shot)

    Should not be given to children younger than two years of age
    One dose provides protection. It should be given at least two weeks before travel to allow the vaccine time to work
    A booster dose is needed every two years for people who remain at risk

Live Typhoid Vaccine (Oral)

    Should not be given to children younger than six years of age
    Four doses, given two days apart, are needed for protection. The last dose should be given at least 1 week before travel to allow the vaccine time to work
    A booster dose is needed every five years for people who remain at risk

Either vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines.

Sunday, 1 November 2015


December 16, 2013 by The Ashley Law Firm

According to The American Podiatric Medical Association (APMA), there are approximately one million trusting nail salon patrons in the US who finish their treatment and walk out the door of their salon of choice with either bacterial, viral or fungal infections. And, regrettably, it doesn’t seem to matter which salon the patron favorites for the service, there is almost always a risk of attracting an infection no matter where you go. According to the Association, it is estimated that seventy-five percent of salons in the United States aren’t following their own state’s required procedure regarding disinfecting equipment. Unsuspecting patrons are simply not aware of the likelihood that their salon is not mixing disinfectant solutions as required, or soaking and sterilizing instruments properly. Some salons are even using watered-down products to cut costs (i.e: using a window cleaner like Windex as a substitute for Barbicide). And, for the customer there is virtually no way to verify that proper procedures are being followed in their salon.

At approx. $10-to-$45 a session for a manicure and $15-to-$50 for a pedicure in the New York City area, we’re talking about a two billion dollar a year industry just here in New York. So salons will do whatever they have to do to keep you coming back. There are times when “whatever it takes” means taking that extra step to insure excellent service and hyper cleanliness. Then there are times when all it really means is putting the customer in harms way by cutting corners to keep costs down and profits up.

When it’s the later, what’s supposed to be a relaxing, energizing, treat, can turn into the customer’s worst nightmare. I don’t mean to sound alarmist – and in fact millions of women and men get manicures each year without any serious, or life-threatening side effects showing up — a customer would be only kidding herself to just assume it could never happen to them. The fact is nail salons often don’t provide their customers the required level of cleanliness, nor do many have adequately trained nail technicians to prevent diseases from starting and spreading in their salons.

Which is why the APMA went straight to the pros who know — nail technicians and their member podiatrists in order to get the skinny on what’s really going on in these establishments that they don’t want you know.

Althought required by law, most nail salons won’t turn away costumers even is the customer is sick, with say a nail infections or foot fungus. Which means that people who are sick are being worked on next to you instead of being referred to an appropriate medical professional.

One very experience, so-called celebrity manicurist, claims to have seen salons owners filling expensive lotion bottles with a cheap generic lotion.
Similarly, she says that some salons use nail polish remover to dilute nail polish that is old and clumpy from too much air exposure. Dilution compromises the quality of the polish, which will make the formula chip easier once on your nails.

Cuts in the skin can be microscopic. The customer either comes with the little cuts, scratch, hangnails, bitten nails, insect bites, paper cuts, split cuticles — or a careless technician can cause one in the salon. But just because no blood is visible, it doesn’t mean these bacterial portals of entry aren’t susceptible to infective organisms.

Some customers think the back-and-forth talk, in a foreign language, between nail technicians is about them. But 99% of the time, it isn’t. And the chatter can mean that your technician isn’t paying proper attention to the delicate work she’s doing on your fingers. Ask them to please stop the chatter to avoid an accident…but be nice about it.

Some microorganisms that cause infections are easy to kill. Some are not.

One dermatologist we spoke to told us many nail technicians think their instruments are sterilized, when, in fact, they really don’t have a no clue. The fact is not all disinfectant solutions are powerful enough to kill all viruses. Nail technicians aren’t trained to know the difference between one viral infection and another and therefore they seldom, if ever, know how to properly disinfect their instruments for particular pre-existing condition and viruses. Manicure and pedicure-licensed technicians are neither schooled nor licensed to work in the presence of blood or to maintain a surgically sterile environment environment.

While many salons use Barbicide, UV light sterilizer boxes, or other chemical solutions to disinfect their tools, the only device that works completely to sterilize instruments is called an autoclave, which uses high pressure and steam to kills 100 percent of all infective organisms. But currently, only two states (Texas and Iowa) require autoclaves in nail salons by law, which means that less than one percent of salons use them regularly.

To be safe, the customer should ask the salon owner/manager if they use an autoclave to disinfect their tools. Then customers should look for the color change pouches that the instruments are prepared in. The color changes on the bag once correct sterilization conditions have been met. This color change indicates that the object inside the package has been sterilized. Autoclave pouches are sealed and the customer should ask for them to be opened in front of them.

You shouldn’t shave before getting a pedicure, says our celebrity pedicurist. Shaving the legs makes the skin more prone to infection as newly shaved legs have open pores (and often tiny nicks you can’t see) that are susceptible to infectious diseases.

Many salons will try and talk customers into removing callouses, for which they charge extra. Don’t do it. Don’t do it especially if you tend to be athletic and go to the gym regularly. Athletes should never remove calluses because they protect sensitive, softer tissue skin on the feet. If you do opt for callous removal, always choose scrubbing or a chemical remover. Never allow your nail technician to cut or shave the skin off your feet.

Only metal tools can be put in the autoclave. Other tools used in nail salons like pumice stones, emery boards, nail buffers and foam toe separators should be replaced after each use to prevent the spread of bacteria. That’s why the salon customer is better off bringing his/her own tools — just in case the salon doesn’t follow the required practice of swapping out no metal tools after every use.

Whirlpool footbaths, though seemingly safe, are filled with city water, which may or may not be free of microbes. Even though most nail salons disinfect their tubs, researchers for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention typically find bacteria that could cause boils and rashes in most of these units used in nail salons, according to the New York Times. And it’s extremely hard to sue nail salons for causing these microbe growths because infections like boils can take as long as four months after a pedicure to develop.

Tuesday, 20 October 2015


By Radhika Sanghani

Cameron Diaz might be strictly pro-pubes, but most women just aren’t. Whether it’s just their bikini line (the sides), a Brazilian (everything except a strip in the middle) or a Hollywood (everything) - a whopping 87 per cent of American women remove their pubic hair.

The most common way to remove the hair is by shaving, according to a new study, published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. It’s nothing we couldn’t have guessed – waxing isn’t just painful, it’s expensive and time-consuming.

But what is surprising is that the research also found 60 per cent of women had at least one health complication incurred from pubic hair removal, typically epidermal abrasion (invisible cuts to the skin) and ingrown hairs. It was also shown to cause severe skin irritation, infections and – according to an older study – increase the spread and transmission of STIs.

It’s pretty shocking stuff to think that shaving your bikini line could leave you in hospital, or at a higher risk of catching genital warts. But just how likely is it? Is shaving your bikini line really that bad, or is it OK to carry on?

I spoke to Hugh Byrne, a consultant gynaecologist, to find out the real dangers of hair removal:
1) Hair removal can give you abscesses

Byrne tells me that since hair removal became really commonplace he’s seen “a definite increase in infected abscesses that need to be lanced [drained]”. Typically, they’re caused by bacteria entering the body through the hair follicle.

He explains that it’s easily corrected, either by antibiotics, or a patient having an operation, which always carries a danger risk.

2) Shaving isn’t worse than waxing

Waxing is often seen as the preferable option, but Byrne explains that because pubic hairs generally grow at a slant, even waxing will not be able to fully pull out a hair. It means it could still become an ingrown hair.

“There’s no difference between the two,” he says. “ All you’re doing is removing the hair.”

3) Ingrown hairs aren’t dangerous

Shaving and waxing will both cause ingrown hairs, where “you take off the top layer of the skin so the bit of hair left tries to grow again and grows in on itself,” explains Byrne. They can be unsightly, uncomfortable and very painful – but they won’t put your life in danger.

4) Hair removal creams might be best

While waxing and shaving have similar effects, hair removal creams work differently, using chemicals. Byrne says: “The only difference with creams is there’s no physical trauma to the skin.” It means that there’s less chance of receiving cuts and infections.

But, most manufacturers say you shouldn’t use the creams on your genital area. So, they won’t work for Brazilians.

5) Hair removal can increase STI risks

A 2012 study suggests that hair removal can increase your chance of contracting an STI because remove the hair affects the skin membrane, making it easier for bacteria to enter the body.

READ: Bikini waxes and Brazilians 'behind rise in STI warts'

Byrne says that in his experience, this is true. He explains that pubic hair is there to “absorb moisture and drain it away from areas that aren’t exposed”. If there’s no hair, the skin is more vulnerable to infections such as herpes and genital warts.

6) Trimming is less risky

For women who really just don’t want to go au natural, trimming is a safer option. Byrne explains that an ingrown hair follicle won’t happen with trimming – the only downside is that as the hairs grow longer, it can cause itching.

Oh, and if you’re using an electrical trimming device, be extra careful when it’s so close to your genitalia.

7) Hair removal is more dangerous for overweight women

The new American study found that complications were twice as likely for overweight or obese women, and three times more likely if they removed all their pubic hair. Byrne explains that it’s because for larger women, their skin will be closer together.

“The hairs that are short are more likely to be ingrown,” he says. “There’ll also be more moisture so they’re more likely to have bacteria.”

8) It’s up to you

Even with these risks laid out, Byrne explains: “It’s entirely personal preference – you just need to be aware of the risks. Some cultures have been doing it for centuries. If you’re worried about an infection, go and see your doctor, otherwise you don’t really need to discuss it with a GP.”

Saturday, 17 October 2015




My Father aged 65 years was diagnosed with malaria 15 days back and was on medication. Fever was recurring frequently and he had developed a lung infection. Three days back fever stopped and did not occur for 2 days and malarial infection was reducing. Now the Fever has started coming but other parameters are normal. Can you please suggest what needs to be done?


If your father also developed a lung infection, was he treated with antibiotics? If not, his later fever could be caused by that infection, and could be unrelated to the malaria.

He should have another blood test, to look for the malaria parasites; if they are still present, then you should talk to his doctor about trying another type of anti-malarial medication—the World Health Organization recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), such as Coartem, Alu and Duo-Cotecxin, as the first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria.

However, given that your father appears to have concurrent other medical conditions, it may be that other treatment is more appropriate, and as such it is very important that you check with your doctor before taking additional medication.
    I have similar stubborn malaria and have been disturbing me. I have used several malaria drugs but pt kept on reoccuring. I have visited my doctor again and he has recommended Duo-Cotecxin 3,3,2. God forbid, incase it reoccur what do i do pls? Thanks.
   In cases of apparent recurring malaria, it is really important to ascertain whether it is a true relapse (where the initial blood infection is cured, but dormant forms persist in the liver and cause a new infection of the blood at a later date – this only occurs with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infection), or re-infection (where the infection is cured, but you get infected again) or recrudescence (where the blood infection is not completely cured and so as soon as treatment ends, the infection can come back). Determining this will require your doctor to do blood tests after you have completed treatment, to see if any parasites are persisting in your blood. The type of parasite can also be identified using a blood test. Depending on which of the above is affecting you, you have several future options. If you have true relapse, then you should talk to your doctor about taking primaquine, which can kill the dormant liver stages of P. vivax and P. ovale and prevent future relapses. The drug is not necessarily suitable for people who suffer from G6DP deficiency, so you may need to have a test for this condition first. If you are suffering from frequent re-infection, then you should focus on malaria prevention. This includes reducing the number of mosquitoes in and around your home (such as spraying with insecticides and removing stagnant water sources, which act as breeding grounds for malarial mosquitoes) as well as protecting yourself from the bites (i.e. sleeping under a long-lasting insecticide treated bednet). If your treatment is failing for some reason and you have recrudescence, again knowing the type of parasite might be able to suggest more effective treatment method (some drugs are more effective against certain types of malaria, for example, and there are also strains of malaria which are resistant to certain medicines). Also, you should ensure that the medication you take is not counterfeit and not expired – this can be a problem in many places. Finally, it is worth remembering that the symptoms of malaria are often very general, and in some places, clinicians will incorrectly diagnose malaria based on symptoms – this is why it is important to always have a positive blood test before being treated for malaria.

Friday, 9 October 2015


Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area.

The incidence of typhoid fever in the United States has markedly decreased since the early 1900s, when tens of thousands of cases were reported in the U.S. Today, less than 400 cases are reported annually in the United States, mostly in people who have recently traveled to Mexico and South America. This improvement is the result of better environmental sanitation. India, Pakistan, and Egypt are also known as high-risk areas for developing this disease. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects more than 21 million people annually, with about 200,000 people dying from the disease.

How Do People Get Typhoid Fever?

Typhoid fever is contracted by drinking or eating the bacteria in contaminated food or water. People with acute illness can contaminate the surrounding water supply through stool, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria. Contamination of the water supply can, in turn, taint the food supply. The bacteria can survive for weeks in water or dried sewage.

About 3%-5% of people become carriers of the bacteria after the acute illness. Others suffer a very mild illness that goes unrecognized. These people may become long-term carriers of the bacteria -- even though they have no symptoms -- and be the source of new outbreaks of typhoid fever for many years.
How Is Typhoid Fever Diagnosed?

After the ingestion of contaminated food or water, the Salmonella bacteria invade the small intestine and enter the bloodstream temporarily. The bacteria are carried by white blood cells in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, where they multiply and reenter the bloodstream. People develop symptoms, including fever, at this point. Bacteria invade the gallbladder, biliary system, and the lymphatic tissue of the bowel. Here, they multiply in high numbers. The bacteria pass into the intestinal tract and can be identified in stool samples. If a test result isn't clear, blood samples will be taken to make a diagnosis.