Tuesday, 18 March 2014

DOES INBREEDING GIVE YOU SIX FINGERS?

Tuesday, 4 March 2014

COLON CANCER ALERT: COLONIC POLYPS


A polyp is an extra piece of tissue that grows inside your body. Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps may turn into cancer or already be cancer. To be safe, doctors remove polyps and test them. Polyps can be removed when a doctor examines the inside of the large intestine during a colonoscopy.
Anyone can get polyps, but certain people are more likely than others. You may have a greater chance of getting polyps if you

    Are over age 50
    Have had polyps before
    Have a family member with polyps
    Have a family history of colon cancer

Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include blood on your underwear or on toilet paper after a bowel movement, blood in your stool, or constipation or diarrhea lasting more than a week.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases

Saturday, 1 March 2014

COLONIC POLYPS: EXTRA TISSUES GROWING IN THE COLON THAT CAN BECOME CANCEROUS IF NOT WATCHED OR REMOVED

A polyp is an extra piece of tissue that grows inside your body. Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps may turn into cancer or already be cancer. To be safe, doctors remove polyps and test them. Polyps can be removed when a doctor examines the inside of the large intestine during a colonoscopy.
Anyone can get polyps, but certain people are more likely than others. You may have a greater chance of getting polyps if you

    Are over age 50
    Have had polyps before
    Have a family member with polyps
    Have a family history of colon cancer

Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include blood on your underwear or on toilet paper after a bowel movement, blood in your stool, or constipation or diarrhea lasting more than a week.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases

Thursday, 27 February 2014

RECTAL BLEEDING IN STOOL (DO NOT IGNORE THIS)

Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

Blood in the stool can be bright red, maroon in color, black and tarry, or occult (not visible to the naked eye). Causes of blood in stool range from harmless, annoying conditions of the gastrointestinal tract such as hemorrhoids to serious conditions such as cancer. Blood in the stool should be evaluated by a health care professional.
Rectal bleeding (known medically as hematochezia) refers to passage of bright red blood from the anus, often mixed with stool and/or blood clots. Most rectal bleeding comes from the colon, rectum, or anus. The color of the blood during rectal bleeding often depends on the location of the bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Generally, the closer the bleeding site is to the anus, the blood will be a brighter red. Thus, bleeding from the anus, rectum, and the sigmoid colon tend to be bright red, whereas bleeding from the transverse colon and the right colon (transverse and right colon are several feet away from the anus) tend to be dark red or maroon colored.
In some patients bleeding can be black and "tarry" (sticky) and foul smelling. The black, smelly and tarry stool is called melena. Melena occurs when the blood is in the colon long enough for the bacteria in the colon to break it down into chemicals (hematin) that are black. Therefore, melena usually signifies bleeding is from the upper gastrointestinal tract (for example: bleeding from ulcers in the stomach or the duodenum or from the small intestine) because the blood usually is in the gastrointestinal tract for a longer period of time before it exits the body. Sometimes melena may occur with bleeding from the right colon. On the other hand, blood from the sigmoid colon and the rectum usually does not stay in the colon long enough for the bacteria to turn it black. Rarely, massive bleeding from the right colon, from the small intestine, or from ulcers of the stomach or duodenal can cause rapid transit of the blood through the gastrointestinal tract and result in bright red rectal bleeding. In these situations, the blood is moving through the colon so rapidly that there is not enough time for the bacteria to turn the blood black.
Sometimes, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract can be too slow to cause either rectal bleeding or melena. In these patients bleeding is occult (not visible to the naked eyes). The blood is found only by testing the stool for blood (fecal occult blood testing) in the laboratory. Occult bleeding has many of the same causes as rectal bleeding and may result in the same symptoms as rectal bleeding. It is often associated with anemia that is due to loss of iron along with the blood (iron deficiency anemia). For more information, please see the colon cancer screening and fecal occult blood test articles.

Thursday, 13 February 2014

SEE WHY YOUR RED BLOOD CELL IS THE WAY IT IS


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

American english spelling hematocrit), also known as packed cell volume (PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF), is the volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood. It is normally about 45% for men and 40% for women.[1] It is considered an integral part of a person's complete blood count results, along with hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, and platelet count.

Elevated
In cases of dengue fever, a high hematocrit is a danger sign of an increased risk of dengue shock syndrome.
Polycythemia vera (PV), a myeloproliferative disorder in which the bone marrow produces excessive numbers of red cells, is associated with elevated hematocrit.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other pulmonary conditions associated with hypoxia may elicit an increased production of red blood cells. This increase is mediated by the increased levels of erythropoietin by the kidneys in response to hypoxia.
Professional athletes' hematocrit levels are measured as part of tests for blood doping or erythropoietin (EPO) use; the level of hematocrit in a blood sample is compared with the long-term level for that athlete (to allow for individual variations in hematocrit level), and against an absolute permitted maximum (which is based on maximum expected levels within the population, and the hematocrit level that causes increased risk of blood clots resulting in strokes or heart attacks).
Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use can also increase the amount of RBCs and, therefore, impact the hematocrit, in particular the compounds boldenone and oxymetholone.
If a patient is dehydrated, the hematocrit may be elevated.
Capillary leak syndrome also leads to abnormally high hematocrit counts, because of the episodic leakage of plasma out of the circulatory system.
Sleep Apnea has been known to cause elevated hematocrit levels.

Lowered
The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the red cell distribution width (RDW) can be quite helpful in evaluating a lower-than-normal hematocrit, because it can help the clinician determine whether blood loss is chronic or acute, although acute blood loss typically does not manifest as a change in hematocrit, since hematocrit is simply a measure of how much of the blood volume is made up of red blood cells. The MCV is the size of the red cells and the RDW is a relative measure of the variation in size of the red cell population. A low hematocrit with a low MCV with a high RDW suggests a chronic iron-deficient anemia resulting in abnormal hemoglobin synthesis during erythropoiesis. One unit of packed red blood cells will elevate the hematocrit by about 3%.
Groups of individuals at risk for developing anemia include:
    infants without adequate iron intake
    children going through a rapid growth spurt, during which the iron available cannot keep up with the demands for a growing red cell mass
    women in childbearing years with a greater need for iron because of blood loss during menstruation
    pregnant women, in whom the growing fetus creates a high demand for iron
    patients with chronic kidney disease whose kidneys no longer secrete sufficient levels of the hormone erythropoietin that promotes RBC proliferation. Erythropoietin prevents the death of cells in the erythrocyte cell line in the bone marrow. Therefore, erythropoietin allows those cells to continue to mature, exit the bone marrow and become RBCs.[6]


Wednesday, 29 January 2014

ENDOMETRIOSIS: MEN AND WOMEN YOU BETTER EDUCATE YOUR SELF ON THIS.

 WEBMD
 What causes endometriosis?

The cause of endometriosis is unknown. One theory is that the endometrial tissue is deposited in unusual locations by the backing up of menstrual flow into the Fallopian tubes and the pelvic and abdominal cavity during menstruation (termed retrograde menstruation). The cause of retrograde menstruation is not clearly understood. But retrograde menstruation cannot be the sole cause of endometriosis. Many women have retrograde menstruation in varying degrees, yet not all of them develop endometriosis.
Another possibility is that areas lining the pelvic organs possess primitive cells that are able to grow into other forms of tissue, such as endometrial cells. (This process is termed coelomic metaplasia.)
It is also likely that direct transfer of endometrial tissues during surgery may be responsible for the endometriosis implants sometimes seen in surgical scars (for example, episiotomy or Cesarean section scars). Transfer of endometrial cells via the bloodstream or lymphatic system is the most likely explanation for the rare cases of endometriosis that develop in the brain and other organs distant from the pelvis.
Finally, there is evidence that shows alternations in the immune response in women with endometriosis, which may affect the body's natural ability to recognize and destroy any misdirected growth of endometrial tissue.
What are endometriosis symptoms?
Most women who have endometriosis, in fact, do not have symptoms. Of those who do experience symptoms, the common symptoms are pain (usually pelvic) and infertility. Pelvic pain usually occurs during or just before menstruation and lessens after menstruation. Some women experience painful sexual intercourse (dyspareunia) or cramping during intercourse, and or/pain during bowel movements and/or urination. Even pelvic examination by a doctor can be painful. The pain intensity can change from month to month, and vary greatly among women. Some women experience progressive worsening of symptoms, while others can have resolution of pain without treatment.
Pelvic pain in women with endometriosis depends partly on where the implants of endometriosis are located.    Deeper implants and implants in areas with many pain-sensing nerves may be more likely to produce pain.  The implants may also produce substances that circulate in the bloodstream and cause pain.
Lastly, pain can result when endometriosis implants form scars. There is no relationship between severity of pain and how widespread the endometriosis is (the "stage" of endometriosis).
Endometriosis can be one of the reasons for infertility for otherwise healthy couples. When laparoscopic examinations are performed for infertility evaluations, endometrial implants can be found in some of these patients, many of whom may not have painful symptoms of endometriosis. The reasons for a decrease in fertility are not completely understood, but might be due to both anatomic and hormonal factors. The presence of endometriosis may involve masses of tissue or scarring (adhesions) within the pelvis that may distort normal anatomical structures, such as Fallopian tubes, which transport the eggs from the ovaries. Alternatively, endometriosis may affect fertility through the production of hormones and other substances that have a negative effect on ovulation, fertilization of the egg, and/or implantation of the embryo.